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What is Dencun hardfork?

Dencun hardfork activates all EIPs also activated on Ethereum mainnet. The table below lists differences if any.

EIP-1153: Transient storage opcodesELNot modified
EIP-4788: Beacon block root in the EVMCL, ELNot modified, same addresses as Ethereum
EIP-4844: Shard Blob TransactionsCL, ELConstants maybe modified from Ethereum (* )
EIP-5656: MCOPY - Memory copying instructionELNot modified
EIP-6780: SELFDESTRUCT only in same transactionELNot modified
EIP-7044: Perpetually Valid Signed Voluntary ExitsCLNot modified
EIP-7045: Increase max attestation inclusion slotCLNot modified
EIP-7514: Add Max Epoch Churn LimitCLConstants maybe modified from Ethereum (* )
EIP-7516: BLOBBASEFEE opcodeELNot modified

* See Differences with Ethereum mainnet

Note: The trusted setup required for deneb's cryptography is the same as defined in Ethereum's consensus spec release v1.4.0, which can be found here.

Differences with Ethereum mainnet


Gnosis chain has slots significantly faster than Ethereum. Bigger blocks could have a higher cost to the network than Ethereum so we may price blobs differently. Ethereum mainnet has chosen a target of 3 blobs from real live experiments on mainnet with big blocks. Consecuently this parameters may not be adecuate.

Gnosis chain has significantly cheaper fees than mainnet, so blob spam is a concern. Ethereum's MIN_BLOB_GASPRICE makes blob space free (1e-18 USD / blob) if usage is under the target for a sustained period of time. The same concern applies to Ethereum, but consensus is that choosing a specific value that may apply to only some market conditions and not others. Given that Gnosis native token is a stable coin, this concerns are mitigated. Given usage under target for regular txs and blob data, setting min blob gas price to 1 GWei reduces the cost per byte by a factor of 16.



Gnosis chain has both a lower CHURN_LIMIT_QUOTIENT and faster epoch times. A MAX_PER_EPOCH_ACTIVATION_CHURN_LIMIT value of 2 provides a good trade-off to:

  • Limit max state growth in the next year to 1M validators
  • Increase the minimum time for a 2/3 malicious take-over to 150 days at current validator set sizes
  • Allow validator set growth to prevent long queues unless there's exceptional demand

Upgrade Schedule

NetworkTimestampDate & Time (UTC)Fork HashBeacon Chain Epoch
Chiado1706724940Wed Jan 31 2024 18:15:40 GMT+0000-516608
Mainnet1710181820Monday March 11 202418:30:20 +UTC-889856

How to Prepare

For Validators

  1. Update your clients:

    Execution Layer

    Consensus Layer