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Core Devs Call - 2023/03/08

· 3 min read
Lion - dapplion
Merge coordinator
Validator Comms Lead @ Gnosis

Greetings everyone, and welcome to the weekly Gnosis Core Devs Call. Just a quick reminder that this meeting takes place every Wednesday. Watch on Gnosis Chain YouTube channel. ‍

Participants: Erigon, Gateway, Nethermind, Geth, Gnosis DevOps, Gnosis Core Devs, Gnosis DevRels, Gnosis Comms team and the contributors.

In this meeting, after a quick update was received from Chain Infra and Client teams, devnet planning was discussed in the Withdrawals process. Test processes continue. In addition, new positions were evaluated for needs.

Mar 8, 2023

Client Team Updates


  • Nethermind: Managed to get the contract deployed on devnet. Will figure things out with Lion async
  • Erigon: No update
  • Geth: No update


  • Prysm: No update

Chain Infra

  • Gateway : Close to final setup for a bridge validator for Chiado. Hopefully this week. If it works, they’ll go to mainnet with the same config

Withdrawals contract

  • Adam reached out, the audit is ready
  • Lion will follow up with that


  • Contract deployment issues
  • Ownership: See hiring
  • Nethermind is maintaining the current DevNet short term Carlos, Lion and maybe someone from Gateway will maintain them. The current devnet is mostly internal for Nethermind It has a very low amount of validators. For a public one we should create a new devnet. Maybe we can still open it at least to Erigon so they can start testing Infra (explorers etc) are already mostly set up Lion is suggesting to use Nimbus’ explorer (which is way more minimal) in case can’t keep up The withdrawal address contract isn’t known in advance, which is a bit problematic. Ideally we should have create2 deployments so that the address is known in advance The address should be identical across deployments to make things easier
  • Needs to be deployed with the same EOA. Ruben will try to get this to work
  • New larger devnet: We’ll give one week of notice to allow everyone to spin up infra


  • Hive Max brought in by Anna. He’s working with the Gateway team and moved to Erigon. Worked on the Hive tests to figure out the differences between Ethereum and Gnosis Crafted a new genesis for Gnosis. Went down a rabbit hole with dependencies and adapting the tests to work with Gnosis. Will ask questions regarding the network Commitment unclear


Philippe officially taking over as TPM “Core Devs”!

  • Hiring Roles QA: maintain test suite (Hive tests, etc) DevOps: DevNets, Shadowforks, Testnets Where headcount will sit: Gnosis, or with a core team Need help with JDs + recruiting

Core Devs Call - 2023/03/01

· 6 min read
Validator Comms Lead @ Gnosis

Greetings everyone, and welcome to the weekly Gnosis Core Devs Call. Just a quick reminder that this meeting takes place every Wednesday.

Participants: Erigon, Gateway, Nethermind, Geth, Gnosis DevOps, Gnosis Core Devs, Gnosis DevRels, Gnosis Comms team and the contributors.

The main topic of discussion during the meeting was the Devnet and Hive test. The team is currently making preparations for the forthcoming Shapella upgrade. Furthermore, updates were given on withdrawal contract, the Client team, Chain infrastructure, and POSDAO test.

Watch on Gnosis Chain YouTube channel


  • Withdrawals Contract
  • Shapella Upgrade
  • Core Dev Team updates
  • Client Team Update
  • Chain Infrastructure Updates
  • Devnet
  • Hive and POSDAO test
  • Get rid of mGNO

Call Notes

Gnosis Core Devs Call Notes

Withdrawals contract

  • We should try to commit to a date soonish
    • Devnet with actual contract deployed today by Nethermind and joined tomorrow by Erigon
  • Semi final state
    • Adam should be taking a look for the audit
      • "I’m still auditing, but also waiting for your response on two threads. I should be able to wrap up the audit shortly after I receive the fixed code."
    • Lion is getting gas numbers to have accurate parameters
    • Coming up with a plan so that Jorge can easily deploy

Client team updates



  • Figured out the issue with withdrawal testnet
  • Next step: spinning up a new one with the actual withdrawal contract’s bytecode


  • Implemented the withdrawal logic for Gnosis chain
    • Not tested yet


  • Guillaume went back to snap sync, but it makes Nethermind hang up
  • Trying some sort of manual snap sync by exporting data from Nethermind and importing directly into geth



  • New release with the Gnosis changes also includes Capella changes
    • Breaks the fork id logic for networks where the Capella fork hasn’t been scheduled yet
    • One can set a Capella fork block far in the future to test it out


  • No updates except the ones mentioned in the team updates
  • How are we going to split validator duties?
    • Ideally multiple teams should run keys
    • Between 1k and 10k in total
    • A third for Nethermind, Gnosis and Gateway

Chain infra


  • Work on bridge validator
    • Created ansible scripts
  • Slowdown while Denver is happening
  • Updated the way traffic gets redirected from the Gnosis RPC to Gateway to better track RPS
  • Beaconchain

Additional Workstreams (will join this call in the future)

  • Shutterized Beacon Chain
  • Account Abstraction



  • Nethermind has been discussing it internally
    • They think it would be bad long term if Nethermind took ownership of testing because they’re the majority client already, and thus don’t really want to do it
    • At the same time, it’s unrealistic to fork without testing in place
  • Dapplion thinks that if Nethermind has capacity it would be nice to still do it and diversify later on
    • The shortest path right now to move forward is for Nethermind to implement tests
  • On Gnosis, previously Jorge wrote tests (but also implementation, so that’s not great)
    • We don’t have experience in-house for testing
    • We might not have enough work to hire a full-time test developer
  • Guillaume thinks that for a short period of time it could occupy a full-time developer position and will ask for finer details from the Ethereum Foundation / tester
  • On Ethereum, there’s a dedicated testing team and contributions from clients teams from time to time
    • Ideally, teams give ideas for good tests but don’t implement them
    • They also have tests other than Hive
  • Guillaume would be willing to help writing Hive tests with the Nethermind team potentially
  • Tests are a blocker right now
    • We have most implementations and devnets, but no tests
  • Dapplion: is it a big issue to not have tests if devnets work as expected?
    • Are there code paths that we can’t trigger on a devnet?
      • Failed withdrawals are trivial to trigger on devnet
    • Could be an issue for regression testing, but we could freeze that code
  • Dapplion: does Gateway have core devs that could do this?
    • Anna: not sure, will ask
  • For consensus-breaking features, tests are essential
    • Also useful for edge cases, which can be difficult to trigger on devnets / testnets
  • Guillaume and Marek don’t feel comfortable going to mainnet without tests
  • Dapplion: it might take a lot of time to hire someone to work on this, so ideally we should jumpstart it with existing talent to not delay the fork significantly
    • Ask: Find person who is familiar with Hive tests (HR? - ?), in worst-case scenario find Go (but has cold-start problem)
  • Next steps
    • Dapplion asks Nethermind to reconsider taking part ownership
    • Nethermind will talk about it internally and keep us up to date
    • Gateway should check if they have talent / capacity
    • Gnosis should consider hiring someone
    • Dapplion and Guillaume will take this offline
    • Stefan: Erigon - Go? (but unable to take it on)
      • The core team is rather small and there probably aren’t any free developers
    • Written in JS
    • Jorge would prefer to get rid of them
      • The code is quite complex
      • Still makes it possible to tests withdrawals


mGNO: sole purpose is to allow to use 1 GNO for validators and emulate the 32 ETH on mainnet

Core Devs Call - 2023/02/22

· 6 min read
Validator Comms Lead @ Gnosis

Greetings everyone, and welcome to the weekly Gnosis Core Devs Call. Just a quick reminder that this meeting takes place every Wednesday.

Participants: Erigon, Gateway, Nethermind, Geth, Gnosis DevOps, Gnosis Core Devs, Gnosis DevRels, Gnosis Comms team and the contributors.

The main topic of discussion during the meeting was the withdrawals contract. The team is currently making preparations for the forthcoming Shapella upgrade. Furthermore, updates were given on Devnet, the Client team, Chain infrastructure, and POSDAO.

Watch on Gnosis Chain YouTube channel


  • Withdrawals Contract
  • Shapella Upgrade
  • Core Dev Team updates
  • Client Team Update
  • Chain Infrastructure Updates
  • Devnet

Call Notes

Withdrawals contract

  • Should be finalized
  • Being audited by Adam
  • If the transfers can’t occur (insolvency case), they will be queued and cleared when new GNO is supplied
  • Dapplion is asking for help from Nethermind to pick a safe value of the number of failed transactions to execute per block
  • Might be useful to test on mainnet because on devnets the entire state can be cached
  • Ruben suggests a default of 16 for both, so 32 in the worst case scenario
  • If we have one day worth of failed amounts, then clearing the queue would take a day as well
  • In any case, this would be an unlikely scenario Would require a massive exit
  • Lukasz: is there an estimation of gas usage for those transactions?
  • Dapplion: we don’t have those numbers but we should compute them
  • Based on this, we could choose a number for the failed transactions per block
  • Dapplion: will ask Ihor to get some numbers
  • Need to assign tokens to Deposit Contract
    • Should have some 0x01 addresses
    • Method 1: Jorge’s “Merge” method of just overwriting storage slots
    • Nethermind and Erigon have support for storage allocations
    • Makes it possible to give tokens to users in contracts
    • Method 2: Assign code as constructor bytecode (?)


  • Are there blockers?
    • Actual withdrawals contract (currently using mocks)
  • Can we start spinning one up?
  • Status‍
    • Nethermind
      • Started an internal devnet using a mock contract a few days ago
      • So far, everything seems to be good
      • Starts with AuRa blocks, then Merges (Bellatrix) and then enables Withdrawals
      • Lighthouse might not be compatible with TTD = 0
      • Devnet is simple to set up because it’s mostly automated
      • Current state‍
        • A dozen of validators
        • Went through Shanghai without any issues
        • Withdrawals have not been tested yet
        • Figuring BLS addresses out
        • The nodes are public, so an RPC can be shared
        • Erigon can also join this devnet, but the mock contract is still used, so that needs to be configured‍
    • Erigon‍
      • Not implemented yet
      • Can be done this week
    • General
      • We can spin up a devnet with both clients end of next week (March 2nd)
    • Gnosis DevOps
      • Will run Nethermind first?

Client team updates

Execution Layer

  • Nethermind‍

    • Running devnet for withdrawals
    • Issues regarding 1.17
    • Attestations down
    • We’ll investigate and contact Nethermind on Telegram
  • Erigon

    • Chiado now works
      • Linked to dead peers on Nethermind
      • Enabled snapshots
    • Light client works for Gnosis and Chiado
      • DevOps is working on spinning up more Nimbus peers
  • Guillaume

    • Trying to run latest Prysm on mainnet
    • Will be working on geth sync for the rest of the month
    • Will be working on geth sync for the rest of the month

Consensus Layer

Chain Infra

  • Gateway‍

    • Half of the traffic on Chiado
    • 25% traffic on mainnet
      • Everything’s good and planning to increase traffic
    • Gnosis Bridge Validator
      • 1-of-7
      • Work can be slow during EthDenver
  • Beaconchain

    • Not ready till T+1 after Ethereum Shanghai/Capella
    • For the 0x00 -> 0x01 address conversion


  • When is a realistic time for Withdrawals?

    • Need to prep community
    • We should not overpromise‍
  • DevNet

    • Next steps (can be done without Erigon)
    • Deploy a new one with the actual smart contract
      • With upgrade from mainnet bytecode if possible, but not essential
      • Can be put in the genesis bytecode
    • The contract should be pre-funded to simulate the current state on mainnet
    • Would be great to test the insolvency case
    • Test the deposit contract update
      • Start with the bytecode of the current deposit contract
      • Go through the upgrade
    • Can probably be done this week
  • Shadow forks‍

  • Chiado

    • Deposit contract for Genesis
    • Start testing tooling
      • Dappnode
      • Withdrawal credentials in general‍
  • Mainnet‍

    • Deposit contract needs to be updated
    • Requires testing
      • On devnet
      • On chiado
      • Emulate it as close to mainnet as possible

Additional Workstreams

  • Shutterized Beacon Chain
  • Account Abstraction



  • Dapplion: Should be the option in the long term
    • Marek agrees because Ethereum also supports Hive tests
    • However, the initial effort will be more important as we have nothing yet


  • Currently: Truffle test suites
  • Really annoying to work with
  • Still-relevant
    • Deprecated, but still necessary for nodes being synced from Genesis:
      • Pre-merge testing of POSDAO - rotation of validator set, voting etc
      • Test that we can still go thru the Merge without going thru forks or nodes getting start
    • Still relevant:
      • xDai Block Rewards
      • Has prevented really bad problems from happening
        • Syncing from Genesis

None of them are being worked on

  • Would anyone have capacity to do either?
    • Nethermind: Hive tests are written in Go
      • Nethermind has devs, but not sure anyone is available
    • Erigon: Andrew will ask around, but probably no capacity
  • Would be great to have long term ownership of Gnosis tests
    • Especially for shutterized beacon chain etc in the future
  • We wouldn’t need a suite as extensive as Ethereum’s for now
    • The withdrawal tests are relatively succinct


  • The xDai team did an attempt at implementing withdrawals
  • There will be no trace (logs) of withdrawals on explorers
    • We need to work with explorers to display them
    • Ideally they add a new tab, similar to “internal” / “ERC-20” for withdrawals
    • We can probably piggy-back from the mainnet implementation
    • Caveat: insolvency case, might require some specific logic
    • Gnosisscan
    • Blockscout
  • Lukasz: should withdrawals be shown in traces somewhere?
    • Lukasz: mixed feelings
    • We should maybe ask block explorers / users what they want?
    • Dapplion: let’s keep it simple

Core Devs Call - 2023/02/15

· 6 min read
Lion - dapplion
Merge coordinator
Validator Comms Lead @ Gnosis

Hello everyone from the weekly Gnosis Core Devs Call. This meeting is repeated on Wednesday every week. Watch on Gnosis Chain YouTube channel. ‍

Participants: Erigon, Gateway, Nethermind, Geth, Gnosis DevOps, Gnosis Core Devs, Gnosis DevRels, Gnosis Comms team and the contributors.

In the focus of this meeting, opinions on the implementation of withdrawals contract were evaluated. difficulties and solutions to current problems were discussed. also shared EL and CL team updates.


  • Withdrawals Contract
  • “Native” GNO and mGNO
  • Core Devs Team updates
  • Client Team Update
  • Chain Infrastructure Updates

Feb 15, 2023

  • Withdrawals contract

    • Create a PR with a semi-final implementation
    • Insolvency Case
    • How many failed withdrawals should the system call process?
      • Should it be hardcoded or a chain parameter?
      • Withdrawals are passed as calldata to the contract
      • Only way to fail is if there’s not enough GNO in the contract -> withdrawal stored as failed
      • On every block, failed withdrawals are processed again, in case there’s now enough GNO
      • The question is: how many of those failed withdrawals can we process per block to keep appropriate block times
      • Martin: this situation should never happen ideally
        • Lion: The withdrawal could also fail for other reasons because we’re calling other contracts (?)
        • Goes back to the discussion of whether there should be minting capabilities or not
          • Not realistic to implement this in a timely fashion
      • Daniel: would having two balances (xDAI + GNO) in execution layer (or CL)be an option?
        • Probably too much work / maintenance to be worth it
      • Guillaume: can we get rid of xDAI as native token?
        • Replace it with GNO, and then we basically move to the standard Ethereum way
        • Martin: Probably not viable
        • Is this good for the chain?
          • Would force users to convert their $ into GNO
        • Would it even be feasible?
          • xDAI (or wrapper xDAI) is used in many contracts, where it might be assumed that the native currency is worth a dollar
        • Dan: Move xDai balances into ERC-20 registry?
      • Could we mint something on withdrawals that would allow users to get their original GNO back on Ethereum
    • Need to work with Comms team on instruction guides for community
      • 0x00 addresses can’t withdraw, so these addresses would need to be converted
      • 16 validators withdrawals can be processed per block
        • Dapplion: More withdrawals per block = higher load on processing. Could EL devs benchmark the cost of a withdrawal in gnosis?
        • Cost of withdrawal is more expensive in Gnosis because withdrawals are implemented in EL
        • Marek: best way is to start the devnet and observe block processing time with withdrawals
  • “Native” GNO

    • Ihor: Could lead to bad economical effect
      • Martin: We’re removing the ability of the bridge to mint unlimited GNO on Gnosis’ side, which should only increase security
      • Would be putting the burn promise in code by only having 3m tokens on Gnosis side
    • Need to upgrade Bridge Contracts (?)
      • Omnibridge cannot mint addition GNO.gnosis, needs custom code to pull from 3mn minted
      • GNO.ethereum <> GNO.gnosis (from 3mn) thru 3rd party bridges
    • What’s the current plan of releasing GNO rewards on beacon chain?
      • Right now we can just increase the storage slot in the GNO smart contract on the execution layer side so the token doesn’t need to be upgraded for minting
        • Igor: That has to be done on the execution layer anyways
      • The way this works on Ethereum is just to increase the native balance (no contract interaction)
        • The idea is to call a contract that does it (Ihor’s withdrawal contract) instead of hacking it together
    • Dapplion
      • Thinks it’s a good idea
      • But would probably require a team that would dive into this to make sure everything work as it should and analyze how feasible this is
      • To be considered for inclusion in future hardfork
      • Basically we need expertise on this
    • Let’s do an assessment of whether this is doable or not and how much time it would take
  • mGNO

    • Should it be “user-facing”?
    • Should we get rid of it?
  • Client Team Updates

    • EL
      • Nethermind
      • Erigon
        • Looking into Chiado connectivity issues
        • Nethermind might privilege Nethermind nodes, meaning that they might drop Erigon nodes that are “useless”
        • Nethermind doesn’t think that’s the case and will investigate this
          • --Network.DiagTracerEnabled true can be used for debugging
        • Progress on light CL
        • Stable as a read-only node
        • For validators: treat with caution
          • Misses more attestations than Nethermind and Geth on mainnet
          • Sometimes gets stuck, but not for long
          • From Lukasz, regarding useless peers
            • Invalid NetworkId
            • Capabilities not matched
            • TxFlooding (we are spammed with transaction broadcasts)
            • When someone tries to snap sync from us (as we don't implement snap-server)
            • There’s also another issue that Lukasz is investigating
    • Geth
      • No update
  • Consensus Layer

    • Prysm

      • Merged the changes
    • Nimbus (Philippe Schommers)

        • Not used by the public yet
    • Gnosis deployed some nodes for testing and Erigon CL

    • Housekeeping

  • Chain infra

    • Gateway
      • Been running an Erigon archival node on Gnosis
        • All the nodes were stuck on the same block number
        • Indexing
      • Figuring out re-org
      • The RPC test is going fine
  • Additional Workstreams (will join this call in the future)

    • Shutterized Beacon Chain
    • Account Abstraction

Core Devs Call - 2023/02/08

· 3 min read
Ale Banzas
DevRel @ Gnosis
Validator Comms Lead @ Gnosis

Hello everyone from the weekly Gnosis Core Devs Call. This meeting is repeated on Wednesday every week. Watch on Gnosis Chain YouTube channel. ‍

Participants: Erigon, Gateway, Nethermind, Geth, Gnosis DevOps, Gnosis Core Devs, Gnosis DevRels, Gnosis Comms team and the contributors.


At this week's short meeting, the latest status updates on the withdrawal contract was talked and possible implementation scenarios were evaluated. In addition, opinions were shared about Shanghai testing tools and POSDAO testnet. Updates from Core Dev Team updates on Erigon, Gateway, Nethermind, Geth, Prysm were included in the agenda.Additionally, updates from the Core Dev Team updates about Erigon, Gateway, Nethermind, Geth, Prysm were included in the agenda.


  • Withdrawals Contract
  • Core Dev Team updates
  • Shanghai testing tools
  • Base Fee

Let’s take a look at the core devs call updates.

Call Notes

Withdrawals Contract

  • Not many changes since last week
  • Waiting for feedback before continuing the implementation _ 3 possibilities 1. Declare that the GNO token on the GC is a canonical token _ Mint it when the contract has not enough tokens _ Violates the first principles of the GNO token 2. Mint an GNO on GC token when the contract has not enough tokens _ Violates the bridge pledge logic 3. Do not issue a token when the contract has not enough tokens, but instead leave a note that in the future the user will be able to receive funds if they will be on the withdrawal contract (violates the logic of creating an mGNO token because of staking) E.g. “promissory”GNO

Chain Infra

  • Gateway
    • 20% of Chiado traffic goes to Gateway RPC
    • Need to start getting traffic from Mainnet RPC

Core Dev Team updates

  • EL
    • Erigon
      • No updates
    • Nethermind
      • Working on running devnets for withdrawals with mock contracts
      • The withdrawal spec is going to be different on Gnosis than on mainnet, so testing would be quite useful
      • Wrote a script to verify if some bytecodes are used
      • Resource utilization is apparently lower than before
    • Geth
    • Philippe
      • Added Chiado chainspec to Lodestar
      • Added deposit blocks for Gnosis and Chiado to
    • Erigon
      • To allow for –prune=r without having to specify –prune.r.before=firstDepositBlock
      • WIP: Light clients for CL for Gnosis and Erigon
      • WIP: Nimbus + Erigon

Other issues

  • Bridge Coordinator
    • Will update in subsequent week


  • Gateway
    • Shanghai testing tools?
    • Igor might have been working on this already
    • Waiting for him and dapplion
  • POSDAO tests?
    • Need to add withdrawals tests

Core Devs Call - 2023/02/01

· 4 min read
Ale Banzas
DevRel @ Gnosis
Validator Comms Lead @ Gnosis

Hello everyone from the weekly Gnosis Core Devs Call. This meeting is repeated on Wednesday every week. Watch on Gnosis Chain YouTube channel ‍

Participants: Erigon, Gateway, Nethermind, Geth, Gnosis Core Devs, Gnosis DevRels, Gnosis Comms team and the contributors.


During this week's meeting, the topic of the Withdrawal Contract was thoroughly discussed. The latest updates regarding xDai fees, which were brought to the table last week, were also discussed. Additionally, updates from the Core Dev Team (Erigon, Gateway, Nethermind, Geth, Prysm) were included in the agenda.


  • Withdrawals Contract
  • xDai “fees”
  • Core Dev Team updates
  • InterOp update
  • Base Fee

Let's take a look at the core devs call updates.

Call Notes

  • Chain Infra

  • Ale: from Discord

    • Source of “block rewards” GNO
      • Withdrawals contract (with Ihor)
      • Option 1: Large reserve that pays out GNO rewards (bridged from ETH)
      • Option 2: Hardfork to “mint” GNO on-chain native to Gnosis Chain
  • Withdrawals Contract

    • Current status
    • Need to decide on approach given differences between ETH & GNO
      • Ethereum = ETH is native, while mGNO is not
      • Withdrawals on GNO will “withdraw” it from the deposit contract
    • The “deposit contract” option is being taken for now _ Withdrawal contract will rely on “reserve” contract that will be funded before/after _ Treasury will need to send more GNO to the Withdrawal contrat to account for block rewards
    • Alternative approach
      • Minting mGNO on Gnosis Chain thru increment the mGNO token registry thru system call (i.e. “issue” mGNO)
      • Ihor: how do we maintain total token balance (i.e. sum(GNO on Ethereum chain) == 3_000_000)
    • There is no way to convert mGNO to GNO
      • Ihor is implementing mGNO to GNO unwrapping logic in the mGNO wrapper
      • Upgradeable contract
    • Long-term business direction
      • GNO on Ethereum is a “claim” against native GNO on Gnosis
      • Reduce dependency of GNO on GNO on Etheruem or Bridges
    • Need to write a forum post on Gnosis Forum
  • xDai “fees”

  • Core Dev Team updates

    • Erigon
      • Fixing issues with eth_blockNumber
      • Prep EIP-170 with Shanghai update
        • Contract code size limit
        • Previously omitted in Gnosis Chain - POSDAO had code size limit in POSDAO contract (permissionContract)
        • EIP-3860 - relies on EIP-170
      • Prep for Withdrawals work
    • Nethermind
      • Waiting on Withdrawals spec
      • Proof-of-concept implementation based on what Nethermind team knows about withdrawals
      • Can do some local testing on
      • Scanning chain for opcodes +
    • Gateway
      • Igor: This week we finalized Chiado checkpoint sync endpoint, I fixed some tracing issue in Erigon reported by our users, waiting for more traffic from Gnosis RPC
    • Geth
      • Full Sync
      • Snap Sync - some issues
    • Prysm
      • Merged the PR
      • Should be able to run stock on Prysm - pass in config file
      • Let Guillaume know if we encounter issues
  • Any other issues

    • Philippe: Erigon + Nimbus are publishing blocks
  • Base Fee

    • Spam protection
    • 1 gwei would allow it to kick in within ~10min of full blocks, vs hours
    • Tomasz had strong objections - should table it
  • InterOp update?

    • Withdrawals + Shanghai - shadowforks are working
    • SSZ in execution layer (vs RLP for txns)
      • SSZ (CL) vs RLP (EL)
      • Backward compatibility of txns in SSZ
    • EOF - shelved
    • Specs
      • Danube - 4844
      • Electra - verkle (Guillaume)
  • Consensus Spec tests

    • Needed for Nimbus merge

Core Devs Call - 2023/01/25

· 2 min read
Ale Banzas
DevRel @ Gnosis
Validator Comms Lead @ Gnosis

Call Info

Hello everyone from the weekly Gnosis Core Devs Call. This meeting is repeated on Wednesday every week. Watch on Gnosis Chain YouTube channel ‍ Participants: Erigon, Gateway, Nethermind, Gnosis DevOps, Gnosis Core Devs, Gnosis Comms team and the contributors.


  • Shanghai upgrades details from Nethermind
  • RPC updates from Gateway
  • Suggestion from Stefan: Increase base fee to 1GWEI?

Let's take a look at the core devs call updates.


  • Chiado: Might be finished this month
  • Mainnet: Erigon got stuck while syncing mainnet twice, reboot helped
  • Also affects other networks
  • Not seen in 2.36.1 yet
  • Work going on for withdrawals (for Ethereum mainnet)
  • We should review the specs for Gnosis when everyone is back, because there’s some new context


  • Launched archival RPC (Gnosis mainnet)
  • Will launch a website with the new public RPC
  • Launching checkpoint sync for Chiado (probably today)
  • Fixed an issue with the rate limiter that was too eager
  • Looking into looking a bridge validator on Chiado, and then on mainnet
  • Waiting for Giacomo to accept traffic on the RPC


  • Implementation for withdrawals on Gnosis (and mainnet)
  • Only missing part is the smart contract used for withdrawals
  • Stefan: Ihor will write the contracts (WIP, ETA: 1 month)

Stefan: Increase base fee to 1GWEI? ‍

  • Allows us to make constant spamming very costly. Currently it is too cheap.
  • Current base fee: 7 wei -> extremely cheap to spam the network for a long time
  • Increasing the base fee to 1 gwei would make it expensive to spam the network even for 10 minutes
  • Would require a simple hard fork, which could be included in another hard fork ‍

Jorge (Nethermind)‍

  • No strong opinion
  • The computation limit is bound by the gas limit anyways
  • Sustained loads would increase the gas price exponentially as per EIP-1559
  • On Chiado, a spam of 30 - 60 minutes increased the base fee to hundreds of gwei
  • The main idea is to prevent nefarious actors to put relevant transactions on hold for some time, which would degrade user experience

Gnosis DevOps

  • Chiado RPC routing implemented (testing with Gateway), then mainnet
  • 2 Chiado long-term bootnodes
  • Update configs

Gnosis Chain has successfully Merged

· One min read
Lion - dapplion
Merge coordinator
Cat Herder @ Gnosis


At Block 6,306,357, the Gnosis Execution Layer network successfully merged with the Consensus Layer network.

The Merge was uneventful, which was the best possible outcome after months of hard work and testing by the team.

Resuming Bridge Operations

After a ~36 hour observation period, the Gnosis Governance Multisig proceeded to restore the pre-merge limits for the Bridge.

The xDai Bridge, Arbitrary Message Bridge and Omnibridge resumed regular operation at 10 Dec 2022 03:21 UTC.

Temporary Bootnodes for Dec 2022

· 2 min read
Lion - dapplion
Merge coordinator
Cat Herder @ Gnosis
deprecated update

Check the latest and recommended bootnodes in the network page.



  • On 7 Dec 2022, a subset of Bootnodes that were baked into the Gnosis client releases stopped functioning normally.
  • This resulted in instances of new nodes being unable to find peers unless they specified custom bootnodes.
  • This became a problem for newly-introduced nodes (current nodes unaffected).


  • Core Devs have put together a alternative list of temporary bootnodes that will be active for Dec 2022.
  • These Bootnodes are run by various teams in the Gnosis ecosystem.
  • Node operators will need to specify custom bootnodes when running a fresh Execution or Consensus node.
  • Core Devs will bake updated set of long-term Bootnodes into the next client releases

Execution Layer


Nethermind utilizes the flag --Discovery.Bootnodes to specify custom bootnodes.

Docs: Nethermind Github

--config gnosis
--Discovery.Bootnodes ... # comma separated enode addresses

List of EL Bootnodes


Note: Temporary Nodes provided below are unlikely to be the long-term Bootnodes. You should not expect them to be operational post Jan 2022.

Comma-Separated Values




Consensus Layer


Teku utilizes the flag --p2p-discovery-bootnodes to specify custom bootnodes.


--p2p-discovery-bootnodes=... # comma-separated ENR addresses


Lighthouse utilizes the flag --boot-nodes to specify custom bootnodes.

Docs: Lighthouse CLI .help

--boot-nodes=... # comma-separated ENR addresses


Lodestar utilizes multiple --bootnodes flags to specify custom bootnodes.


--bootnodes=... # first ENR (1 per line)
--bootnodes=... # second ENR (1 per line)

List of CL Bootnodes


Note: Temporary Nodes provided below are unlikely to be the long-term Bootnodes. You should not expect them to be operational post Jan 2022.

Comma-separated Values


One-per Line


The Merge - Pausing of Native Bridges

· 4 min read
Bridges @ Gnosis
Ale Banzas
DevRel @ Gnosis
Cat Herder @ Gnosis


  • Gnosis will be temporarily pausing its Native Bridges for the duration of the Merge
  • This is a risk-management operation that will be rolled back once normal operation of the chain has been verified post-Merge
  • This will affect both the Omnibridge and xDai Bridge, and any 3rd-party bridges or dApps that utilize the Native Bridge contracts.

Pausing of Bridges

24 hours prior to the Merge TTD (currently tracking for ~8th Dec 2022 18:43 UTC), the Gnosis Bridge Governance Multisig will execute a transaction to set the the following bridge parameters.

xDai BridgeDailyLimit set to 0 on all Bridge Contracts

This will prevent any transaction from going through.
Arbitrary Message Bridge
SetMaxGasPerTx set to 0 on all Bridge Contracts

This will prevent any arbitrary message call from going through.

Unpausing of Bridges

There will be an 96 hour observation period post-merge to ensure that the chain finalizes without incident. Once this observation period has passed without incident, the Gnosis Bridge Governance Multisig will execute the following transactions to restore the pre-Merge bridge limits. GnosisDAO may also elect to unpause the bridges earlier.

xDai BridgeLimits restored to Pre-Merge limits
Arbitrary Message Bridge
Arbitrary Messages can be sent.
Omnibridge limits restored to Pre-Merge limits


xDai Bridge

Bridge ContractInitial LimitTemporary Limit

AMB & Omnibridge

Ethereum - Gnosis

Bridge ContractInitial LimitTemporary Limit

Gnosis - BNBChain

Bridge ContractInitial LimitTemporary Limit
HomeGC <-> BSC
ForeignGC <-> BSC


Will the Bridge Contracts remain operational during this time?

  • Bridge Contracts are smart contracts, and remain active on chain
  • The "pause" refers to parameters that are being set on these smart contracts that effectively limit their usage

Will Bridge Validators continue to operate during this time?

  • Bridge Validators will continue to be operational, but will not relay any messages as the events they listen to will not trigger due to the limits set

Can my dApp continue to use the AMB?

  • The Arbitrary Message Bridge (AMB) will not relay messages between the supported networks, as _sendMessage requires a non-null gas limit.
  • Both the OmniBridge and xDai Bridge won’t initiate since the established values will prevent it.

Can I continue to use the Omnibridge?

  • No, you will not be able to use the Omnibridge as it depends on the Arbitrary Message Bridge, which is unable to relay messages due to the gas limit.

What are the conditions by which the bridges will be enabled again?

A few of the conditions we will be monitoring post-Merge:

  • Gnosis Chain should be able to finalize
  • Execution Layer and Consensus Layer "merge" without incident
  • Validators are not experiencing major issues
  • Bridge Validators are operational

After confirming the successful merge of Gnosis mainnet and the beacon chain, we will restore OmniBridge and xDai Bridge initial parameters.